In our previous work, a novel high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) with an extremely large molecular weight from Aegilops sharonensis was identified that may contribute to excellent wheat (Triticum aestivum) processing quality and increased dough strength, and we further generated HMW-GS homozygous lines by crossing. In this study, we crossed the HMW-GS homozygous line 66-17-52 with ‘Chinese Spring’ Ph1 mutant CS ph1b to induce chromosome recombination between wheat and Ae. sharonensis. SDS-PAGE was used to identify 19 derived F2 lines with the HMW-GSs of Ae sharonensis. The results of non-denaturing fluorescence in situ hybridization (ND-FISH) indicated that lines 6-1 and 6-7 possessed a substitution of both 5D chromosomes by a pair of 1Ssh chromosomes. Further verification by newly developed 1Ssh-specific chromosome markers showed that these two lines amplified the expected fragment. Thus, it was concluded that lines 6-1 and 6-7 are 1Ssh(5D) chromosome substitution lines. The 1Ssh(5D) chromosome substitution lines, possessing alien subunits with satisfactory quality-associated structural features of large repetitive domains and increased number of subunits, may have great potential in strengthening the viscosity and elasticity of dough made from wheat flour. Therefore, these substitution lines can be used for wheat quality improvement and further production of 1Ssh translocation lines.