Daiyan Li, Juwei Zhang, Haijiao Liu, Binwen Tan, Wei Zhu, Lili Xu, Yi Wang, Jian Zeng, Xing Fan, Lina Sha, Haiqin Zhang, Jian Ma, Guoyue Chen, Yonghong Zhou, and Houyang Kang
Background: Tetraploid Thinopyrum elongatum (2n = 4x = 28) is a promising source of useful genes, including those related to adaptability and resistance to diverse biotic (Fusarium head blight, rust, powdery mildew, and yellow dwarf virus) and abiotic (cold, drought, and salt) stresses. However, gene transfer rates are low for this species and relatively few species-specific molecular markers are available.
Results: The wheat-tetraploid Th. elongatum line K17–841-1 derived from a cross between a hexaploid Trititrigia and Sichuan wheat cultivars was characterized based on sequential genomic and fluorescence in situ hybridizations and simple sequence repeat markers. We revealed that K17–841-1 is a 1E (1D) chromosomal substitution line that is highly resistant to stripe rust pathogen strains prevalent in China. By comparing the sequences generated during genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), we obtained 597 specific fragments on the 1E chromosome of tetraploid Th. elongatum. A total of 235 primers were designed and 165 new Th. elongatum-specific markers were developed, with an efficiency of up to 70%. Marker validation analyses indicated that 25 specific markers can discriminate between the tetraploid Th. elongatum chromosomes and the chromosomes of other wheat-related species. An evaluation of the utility of these markers in a F2 breeding population suggested these markers are linked to the stripe rust resistance gene on chromosome 1E. Furthermore, 28 markers are unique to diploid Th. elongatum, tetraploid Th. elongatum, or decaploid Thinopyrum ponticum, which carry the E genome. Finally, 48 and 74 markers revealed polymorphisms between Thinopyrum E-genome- containing species and Thinopyrum bessarabicum (Eb) and Pseudoroegneria libanotica (St), respectively.
Conclusions: This new substitution line provide appropriate bridge–breeding–materials for alien gene introgression to improve wheat stripe rust resistance. The markers developed using GBS technology in this study may be useful for the high-throughput and accurate detection of tetraploid Th. elongatum DNA in diverse materials. They may also be relevant for investigating the genetic differences and phylogenetic relationships among E, Eb, St, and other closely-related genomes and for further characterizing these complex species.
Keywords: Tetraploid, Thinopyrum elongatum, Chromosome substitution line, Stripe rust, Species- specific molecular markers, GBS