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Genome origin, historical hybridization and genetic differentiation in Anthosachne australasica (Triticeae; Poaceae), inferred from chloroplast rbcL, trnH-psbA and nuclear Acc1 gene sequences

Counts:1405DateTime:2017-01-03 16:58:44 Source: Wheat Research Institute

Li-Na Sha1,2,†, Xing Fan1,†, Xiao-Li Wang3, Zhen-Zhen Dong1, Jian Zeng4, Hai-Qin Zhang1, Hou-Yang Kang1, Yi Wang1, Jin-Qiu Liao3 and Yong-Hong Zhou1,2,*

- Author Affiliations

1. Triticeae Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang 611130, Sichuan, China
2. Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Resources and Improvement, Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan 625014, Sichuan, China
3. College of Life Sciences, Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan 625014, Sichuan, China
4. College of Resources, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang 611130, Sichuan, China
* For correspondence. E-mail zhouyh@sicau.edu.cn
† These authors contributed equally to this work.

Ann Bot (2016)  doi: 10.1093/aob/mcw222   First published online: December 30, 2016


Abstract
Background and Aims Anthosachne Steudel is a group of allopolyploid species that was derived from hexaploidization between the Asian StY genome Roegneria entity and the Australasia W genome Australopyrum species. Polyploidization and apomixis contribute to taxonomic complexity in Anthosachne. Here, a study is presented on the phylogeny and evolutionary history of Anthosachne australasica. The aims are to demonstrate the process of polyploidization events and to explore the differentiation patterns of the St genome following geographic isolation.

Methods Chloroplast rbcL and trnH-psbA and nuclear Acc1 gene sequences of 60 Anthosachne taxa and nine Roegneria species were analysed with those of 33 diploid taxa representing 20 basic genomes in Triticeae. The phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed. A time-calibrated phylogeny was generated to estimate the evolutionary history of A. australasica. Nucleotide diversity patterns were used to assess the divergence within A. australasica and between Anthosachne and its putative progenitors.

Key Results Three homoeologous copies of the Acc1 sequences from Anthosachne were grouped with the Acc1 sequences from Roegneria, Pseudoroegneria, Australopyrum, Dasypyrum and Peridictyon. The chloroplast sequences of Anthosachne were clustered with those from Roegneria and Pseudoroegneria. Divergence time for Anthosachne was dated to 4·66 million years ago (MYA). The level of nucleotide diversity in Australasian Anthosachne was higher than that in continental Roegneria. A low level of genetic differentiation within the A. australasica complex was found.

Conclusions Anthosachne originated from historical hybridization between Australopyrum species and a Roegneria entity colonized from Asia to Australasia via South-east Asia during the late Miocene. The St lineage served as the maternal donor during the speciation of Anthosachne. A contrasting pattern of population genetic structure exists in the A. australasica complex. Greater diversity in island Anthosachne compared with continental Roegneria might be associated with mutation, polyploidization, apomixis and expansion. It is reasonable to consider that A. australasica var. scabra and A. australasica var. plurinervisa should be included in the A. australasica complex.

Key words
Phylogeny genetic differentiation genome origin Anthosachne apomixis